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The Review Body was persuaded by the weight of evidence that children and young people are especially vulnerable to the risks of becoming problem gamblers. As a result, it decided to make various recommendations that it believed would reduce children’s opportunities to gamble casinosenligneca.com/revues/karamba. The report highlighted two specific areas of gambling regulation: the ability for children legally to play (low stake, low prize) gaming machines in amusement (so called penny) arcades; and the potential for online gambling to increase gambling participation and problem gambling among children.

It described the practice of permitting machine play by minors as “an historical accident”44 but stopped short of recommending a ban out of consideration for the financial impact this would have on seaside arcades. Nevertheless, several recommendations were included for constraining the opportunities for children to gamble on machines, including: • Removing machines from ‘ambient’ and lowly supervised premises such as taxi offices and chip shops; • Restricting machine gaming by under-18s to the lowest stake and prize category (classified as Category D machines under the 2005 Act); • Freezing the maximum stakes (10p per spin) and prizes (£5) for such machines; and 41 Gambling Review Report, p 7 42 Gambling Review Report, p Gambling (Licensing and Advertising) Act 2014 44 Gambling Review Report, p 4 • Barring the use of non-cash prizes.

Each of these recommendations was implemented by the Gambling Act 2005. Draft Gambling Bill and pre-legislative scrutiny

The Draft Gambling Bill was published in November 2003, and listed its licensing objectives as: • Preventing gambling from being a source of crime or disorder, being associated with crime or disorder or being used to support crime, • Ensuring that gambling is conducted in a fair and open way, and • Protecting children and other vulnerable persons from being harmed or exploited by gambling.45

The Draft Bill also made provision for the establishment of the Gambling Commission, and stated that the Commission should permit gambling in so far as is reasonably consistent with the pursuit of the licensing objectives. The Draft Bill also gave the Secretary of State power to make regulations requiring holders of an operating licence to pay an annual levy to the Commission.

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